Chatterjee, Santimay and Chatterjee, Enakshi, Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation, Bengali language Movement (North Dinajpur), "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)", "50th REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA", "Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh – the World's Longest Beach", "The paradise of nations | Dhaka Tribune", "Which India is claiming to have been colonised? [96] India has since fenced the border which has been criticised by Bangladesh. In the 18th-century, the Mughal Court rapidly disintegrated due to Nader Shah's invasion and internal rebellions, allowing European colonial powers to set up trading posts across the territory. From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency". "Bengali" or "Bangali" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Bengal. The Indian part of South Bengal includes 12 districts: Kolkata, Howrah, Hooghly, Burdwan, East Midnapur, West Midnapur, Purulia, Bankura, Birbhum, Nadia, South 24 Parganas, North 24 Parganas. The resolution paved the way for the Partition of British India based on the Radcliffe Line in 1947, despite attempts to form a United Bengal state that was opposed by many people. Most of the Bengal region lies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta, but there are highlands in its north, northeast and southeast. [40] Later from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. There are 150 types of Bengali country boats plying the 700 rivers of the Bengal delta, the vast floodplain and many oxbow lakes. The Bangamata is a female personification of Bengal which was created during the Bengali Renaissance and later adopted by the Bengali nationalists. [69] The Bengali language evolved from Old Indo-Aryan Sanskrit dialects. Renowned Indian physicist Satyendranath Bose made first calculations to initiate Statistical Mechanics. The State of Pakistan was subjected to years of military rule due to fears of Bengali political supremacy under democracy. 119, roughly 163 million in Bangladesh and 100 million in India (. 'Baṅgābda') is a luni-solar calendar used in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent.A revised version of the calendar is the national and official calendar in Bangladesh and an earlier version of the calendar is followed in the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. Its per capita income ranks 143th and 136th in two measures. The famous Bengali linguist Haraprasad Shastri discovered the palm-leaf Charyapada manuscript in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The country has a thriving and internationally acclaimed contemporary art scene. He founded the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire. The region is noted for its distinctive fertile highland terrain, extensive tea plantations, rainforests and wetlands. Bengali women commonly wear the shaŗi and the salwar kameez, often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. Most of the Bengali in Bangladesh are practitioners of Sunni Islam, while the majority of the Bengali in West Bengal follow Hinduism. Bangladesh is Asia's seventh-largest natural gas producer. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world; along with mountains in its north bordering the Himalayan states of Nepal and Bhutan and east bordering Burma. Bengali or Bangla is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises present-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam. The early Iron Age saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage, permanent field agriculture and irrigation. [41] After a period of anarchy, Gopala came to power in 750. The conflict ended after the Indian Armed Forces intervened on the side of Bangladeshi forces in the final two weeks of the war, which ended with the Surrender of Pakistan and the liberation of Dhaka on 16 December 1971. These show her mounted on a lion and killing the evil demon Mahishasura. Bengali has greatly influenced other languages in the region, including Odia, Assamese, Chakma, Nepali and Rohingya. Meghnad Saha contributed to the theorisation of Thermal ionization. Following the death of Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman, the princely state acceded to the Union of India on 15 October 1949 under the Tripura Merger Agreement signed by Maharani Regent Kanchan Prava Devi. This religious difference traces largely to the 13th century, when Muslim forces invaded the region from the northwest. [8] Later writers noted merchant shipping links between Bengal and Roman Egypt. [138], Classical Bengali architecture features terracotta buildings. A native or inhabitant of Bengal. The largest religions practised in Bengal are Hinduism and Islam. The failure of the rebellion led to the abolishment of the Mughal Court and direct rule by the British Raj. [note 2] English-language titles are popular in the urban readership. Central Bengal refers to the Dhaka Division of Bangladesh. Kingdoms of Pundra and Vanga were formed in Bengal and were first described in the Atharvaveda around 1000 BCE as well as in Hindu epic Mahabharata. Folk music in Bengal is often accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument. The Mukti Bahini guerrilla forces waged a nine-month war against the Pakistani military. The city of Sylhet is its largest urban center, and the region is known for its unique language. In the 9th century, Arab Muslim traders frequented Bengali seaports and found the region to be a thriving seafaring kingdom with well-developed coinage and banking. Summit Elevations: Frequent Internet Errors. [30] Apart from Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, and Assam's Barak Valley, Bengali-majority populations also reside in India's union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts, with significant populations in Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Uttarakhand. [32][33] According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivamsha, Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom. It is written using the indigenous Bengali alphabet, a descendant of the ancient Brahmi script. In Bengal effective political and military power was transferred from the old regime to the British East India Company around 1757–65. Southeast Bengal[51][52][53] refers to the hilly and coastal Bengali-speaking areas of Chittagong Division in southeastern Bangladesh. The Bangladeshi part comprises Rajshahi Division and Rangpur Division. Durga Puja is the biggest festival of the Hindus in Bengal as well as the most significant socio-cultural event of the region in general. The liberation war commander Ziaur Rahman emerged as Bangladesh's leader in the late 1970s. By the 1950s, the region had a Bengali majority population due to the influx of Hindu refugees from East Pakistan after partition. The Muslim homeland movement pushed for a sovereign state in eastern British India with the Lahore Resolution in 1943. Under the constitution, while recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. [25], The Maratha invasions of Bengal badly affected the economy of Bengal and it is estimated that 400,000 Bengalis were killed by the Maratha bargis,[26] and the genocide has been considered to be among the deadliest massacres in Indian history.[27]. As a result of the movement, Pakistan government in 1956 included Bengali as national lanuage along with Urdu. Other major Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi, Urdu, Assamese, and Nepali are also familiar to Bengalis. This figures give a population density of 1003.9/km2; making it among the most densely populated areas in the world. Bengali binds together a culturally diverse region and is an important contributor to regional identity. The former president of India, Pranab Mukherjee, was a native of West Bengal and a leader of the Indian National Congress. However, differences over river sharing, border security and access to trade have long plagued the relationship. Many phonological, lexical, and structural differences from the standard variety occur in peripheral varieties of Bengali; these include Sylheti, Chittagonian, Chakma, Rangpuri/Rajbangshi, Hajong, Rohingya, and Tangchangya. Under British rule, Bengal experienced deindustrialisation. The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, speak of Govindachandra as the ruler of Vangaladesa. [60][61] The National Anthem of Bangladesh, National Anthem of India and the National Song of India were first composed in the Bengali language. It later became a district of the Mughal Empire. [20], Since the 16th century, European traders traversed the sea routes to Bengal, following the Portuguese conquests of Malacca and Goa.

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