He was treated as a celebrity -receiving well-deserved respect and honours. In order to become better acquainted with the work being carried out on the platinum metals in the rest of Europe, to study the scientific literature and to investigate the chemical aspects of fusion, Klaus arranged a trip to western Europe, leaving Russia for Berlin in the middle of May, 1863. Their structures and chemical compositions were specified later (22). Thus in 1831, Klaus, then aged thirty-five, sold his drug-store for half the price he thought it was worth and moved his family to Dorpat, determined to study the university course independently, without attending the gymnasium. It is interesting to note that in 1838 the Academy of Sciences awarded K. H. Gebel and Klaus the most prestigious Russian prize for the natural sciences - the Demidov Prize - for their investigations of the flora of the steppes during their 1834 expedition. It is a rare metal that is most commonly found as a minor component of platinum ores. In 1827 chemists Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann were examining the reside left after obtaining the pure platinum. Klaus later showed that Osann was correct and that he had indeed found 3 new metals! At that time platinum was of much interest in Russia and personal contacts between Klaus and Sobolevsky would have facilitated discussions of the many scientific and technical problems associated with platinum, rhodium, iridium and osmium. Say what? It is interesting to note that at much the same time as Klaus was working on problems concerning the platinum metals, he was also involved in extensive work with the Academy of Sciences on Russian flora. Ruthenium is also obtained as a byproduct of the nickel mining operation in the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada. At that stage, however, he did not know the characteristics of the latter. The first brief announcement, and then fuller reports, about the discovery of ruthenium were sent to the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg and to Academician G. I. Gess, who reported them on September 13th and October 25th, 1844. He was able to obtain 6 grams of the metal from crude platinum. “Werner’s views represent a new modification … of the theory of combinations by Klaus”(N. S. Kurnakov, 1893); Klaus’s concepts “appeared again nearly 40 years later in Werner's co-ordination theory” (G. Kauffman, 1976) (33). Indeed, between the early 1930s and 1990s, there were around 400 papers published by them in Russia on ruthenium and other platinum metals, including 11 monographs. For the first time Klaus stressed that reactions with salts of platinum metals proceed slowly and need a lot of time or heating. and only in 1846 did he receive a Demidov prize, for his ruthenium work. Klaus visited factories, mines, and gold and platinum placer deposits. Ruthenium tends to occur along with deposits of platinum and is primarily obtained as a byproduct of mining and refining platinum. All Rights Reserved by wanttoknowit.com. The photograph was taken at the end of the 1850s. After primary school he entered the gymnasium, but the lack of financial support soon obliged him to leave. He named the element Ruthenium, which was from the Latin word Ruthenia (the word was used to describe a region in Eastern Europe including Russia). Here he worked hard in order to be able to start his own business. Ruthenium has a low crustal abundance of about 0.001 part per million. Neither iridium, nor rhodium nor any other metal...” could react in such a way (16). Without Klaus the study of ruthenium in Russia practically ceased and was not resumed until the 1930s, when it was revived by Professor Orest Evgenyevitch Zvyagintsev (1894–1967) and further advanced by his pupils, Nikolay Mikhailovitch Sinitsyn (1931–1992) and the present author. Adding 0.1% ruthenium to titanium makes titanium 100 times more resistant to corrosion. Thus, he may be regarded as the creator of the chemistry of the platinum metals, and the one who introduced the concept of the structure of the “double salts and bases” of platinum, which was developed some forty years later by Alfred Werner in his co-ordination theory Klaus also discovered the similarities and differences between elements in the triads: ruthenium-rhodium-palladium and osmium-iridium-platinum, so providing the justification for Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev to include all six platinum metals in Group VIII of the Periodic System. K. K. Klaus 1796–1864 Besides his discovery of ruthenium, the sixth platinum group element, Klaus also carried out significant research on rhodium, iridium and osmium. While there he selected patterns for the proposed platinum coins whichwere introduced into the currency shortly afterwards. Greatly encouraged, Klaus returned home in August, but a major fire in the city affected his laboratory so badly that he was unable to restart his work until the following Spring. Did you know? © Johnson Matthey 2020 | Terms and Conditions | Careers at Johnson MattheyWe use cookies to help understand how people use our website. Ruthenium was discovered in 1844 in ores extracted from the Ural Mountains in Russia by Karl Klaus, who named it after Ruthenia, the Latin name for Russia. Thus Klaus became more knowledgeable about fusion furnaces, laboratories and the methods used to analyse the platinum metals. “I named the new body, in honour of my Motherland, ruthenium. Who discovered ruthenium? The name Ruthenium is derived from Ruthenia, Latin for Russia. In 1852, family reasons obliged Klaus to leave Kazan and return to Dorpat to the Chair of Pharmacyand a laboratory in the University. Klaus was to write: “the investigation only remained interesting from a scientificpoint of view” (15). This matter was considered recently by N. V. Fedorenko (28), co-author of a major text on the platinum metals (29), who proved convincingly that Klaus was indeed the first to discover ruthenium. In platinum from Colombia he found 1.5 per cent ruthenium, but stressed that ruthenium passes from the platinum ore to aqua regia “in sucha small amount that it is difficult to find it” (23). Thus, Klaus was not only an outstanding experimenter working in breadth, but also a perspicacious scientist, simultaneously investigating topics in depth. Nearly 20 years before, however, Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried … It is stated elsewhere (26) that this was the third letter from Berzelius to Klaus, not the second, but in any case Berzelius only published Klaus’s discovery in 1846, although in that year he informed F. Weiler that “its copy [article] was in my hands from November 1844” (27). Ruthenium is a chemical element that is represented by the chemical symbol Ru and the atomic number 44. The white university building is on the hillock on the right. He associated with C. A. Würz, M. Berthelo, E. Fremi and other scientists, and studied the scientific literature. At this time Klaus was forty-six, an age when the creative work curve of many scientists may have reached a plateau, but he was only at the threshold of his creativity. Klaus eventually extracted 6 grams of clear light grey ruthenium powder. In 1821 he married Ernestina Bate in Dorpat and they moved to Kazan, where he established his own pharmacy. Here he was in charge of analytical chemistry. From the Latin word for the country of Russia, Ruthenia. As twenty years earlier, his persistence and unprecedented devotion to his studies enabled him to achieve his objectives. In the same year Klaus became a pharmaceutical chemist in the remote city of Saratov on the lower reaches of the river Volga. They were later published (17–19). The Russian chemist Karl Karlovich Klaus established (1844) the existence of this rare, bright metal and retained the name his countryman Gottfried Wilhelm Osann had suggested (1828) for a platinum-group element whose discovery had remained inconclusive. Matthey,a devotee of the method of fusion, also had to recognise that this method could not be used in the case of platinum ore”, while on parting “Mr. The possibilities of fusing platinum were studied by B. Yakobi who visited Deville and Debray in 1859 on the instruction of the Russian government. In 1827 Klaus took part in an expedition, led by E. A. Eversman, to study the flora of the steppesaround the Volga. These concepts were difficult for his contemporaries to understand and were only developed later in Alfred Werner’s coordination theory. C. Claus, “ Beitrage zur Chemie der platinmetalle ”. While there Klaus again took part in fusion processes, discussing the results and receiving presents of platinum artifacts and preparations (39, 40). The initial discovery of ruthenium was thought to have occurred in 1828, when Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius and Russian chemist Gottfried W. Osann examined the residues left from crude platinum ores after dissolving them in aqua regia (a concentrated solution of hydrochloric and nitric ac… The Deville and Debray method of fusing platinum was started between 1857 and 1859 and appeared to offer an opportunity of manufacturing platinum articles more readily than the established “wet” methods of consolidation. Although first identified in 1858, ruthenium tetroxide had been detected earlier by Klaus because of its smell. This time, the discoverer was Russian chemist Gottfried W. Osann. In Hanau he made the acquaintance of W. C. Heraeus, who, like him, had been a pharmacist before starting his own business, and who was now the head of a small platinum workshop. At the same time Klaus sent samples of ruthenium and a copy of his report to Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779–1848) in Stockholm. The Minister supported Klaus who was given 8 kg of residue, 100 g of native platinum and the sum of 300 roubles on condition that he would report the results of his work, and return the extracted metals, a year later, see the Scheme. He was particularly interested in this firm because he knew that it had recendy purchased a large quantity of Russian platinum and platinum residues. But this is not all; in a nine page chapter on cyanic compounds, Klaus comes to a fundamental “unexpected” conclusion. I hope you find an answer to your question, but if your don't then please send me your question via email, comment or via Google+ and I'll try and answer it. Besides studying the characteristics of ruthenium, Klaus conducted a wide ranging investigation of rhodium, iridium, osmium, and to a lesser extent, palladium and platinum. As will be described later, however, it was to be thirteen years before Klaus was able to fulfil these conditions. The following year Klaus, together with A. Y. Kupfer, organised a research expedition to the Ural, an area known for three centuries as “Russia’s iron spine”, including cities such as Zlatoust, Miass, Ekaterinburg, Nevyansk, Nizhnii Tagil and Perm. The scientific progress that resulted from his careful experiments and the soundness of his conclusions made a good impression on his contemporaries and established Klaus as a great authority on the subject. His method was based upon the precipitation of double salts of ruthenium and the precipitation of ruthenium from its chloride solution by zinc. Home > Journal Archive > The Discovery of Ruthenium. Indeed, on account of his activity, a former student regarded him as quite a young man (14).Hedevoted himself totally to his labours but suffered greatly from the “endless work in the dense andharmful atmosphere” caused by osmium tetroxide fumes. Klaus was well informed about this and also knew about the smelting work carried outby 1.1. After working as an assistant to a baker, Klaus left for St. Petersburg in 1811 where he became the pupil of a pharmacist. Emperor Nicholas I took an interest in applications for platinum, visiting Sobolevsky’s laboratory on12th February 1828. 628 Hofstadter Road, Suite 6Newport News, VA 23606, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is managed by, Jefferson Science Associates, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy. Regrettably, the monograph that Klaus had been preparing was never completed, but following his death the parts of it that could be found were published (40) by one of his pupils, A. M. Butlerov, who had later succeeded him at Kazan. Ruthenium was discovered by Karl Karlovich Klaus, a Russian chemist, in 1844 while analyzing the residue of a sample of platinum ore obtained from the Ural mountains. Although “no record of such a visit has so far been found” byJohnson Matthey (11), Klaus reported that George Matthey received him “with the same obligingness as the French manufacturers showed me and allowed me into his laboratory”.

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