The field of geography relies on many different types of maps in order to study the features of the earth. A toponymist, through well-established local principles and procedures developed in cooperation and consultation with the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN), applies the science of toponymy to establish officially recognized geographical names. Toponymy or toponomastics is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use and typology. Berg, Lawrence D. and Jani Vuolteenaho. Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds. h�Ԕmk�0ǿʽ���lف����,�f���-18v�U�~��8O[Vڽ����w��� renaming streets, as both the celebration of triumph and the repudiation of the old regime is another issue of toponymy. Some of the most common types are political, physical, topographic, climate, economic, and thematic maps. [citation needed]. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. How to use topographical in a sentence. Consistency and accuracy are essential in referring to a place to prevent confusion in everyday business and recreation. �")�Tf���`�n�^� This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 09:07. [5] A person who studies toponymy is called toponymist. 32 0 obj <> endobj Since then, toponym has come to replace the term place-name in professional discourse among geographers. �˺W�8���!����F��5E��c���FB Clicking anywhere within a quandrant will display an info window with the map name, as well as links to download the map to your computer, or order a waterproof printed map. After 1830, in the wake of the Greek War of Independence and the establishment of an independent Greek state, Turkish, Slavic and Italian place names were Hellenized, as an effort of "toponymic cleansing." Over the years, it has also been noted that a map producer used the name Persian Gulf in a 1977 map of Iran while retaining the fictitious term Arabian Gulf in another 1977 map focusing on the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, underlying the occasional spilling of place names issues into the economic sphere. It looks like your browser needs an update. [citation needed] They typically ensure the ongoing development of a geographical names database and associated publications, for recording and disseminating authoritative hard-copy and digital toponymic data. Czy nauka zajmująca się nazewnictwem miast to onomastyka? T/F Toponym is a branch of onomastics. The name, however, is probably derived from an older language, such as Pelasgian, which was unknown to those who explained its origin. [7], According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word toponymy first appeared in English in 1876. It is not to be confused with, United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, Toponymy in the United Kingdom and Ireland, Toponymical list of counties of the United Kingdom, List of generic forms in British place names, List of English exonyms for German toponyms, List of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms, List of French exonyms for German toponyms, List of French exonyms for Italian toponyms, List of U.S. place names connected to Sweden, Names of European cities in different languages, List of names in English with counterintuitive pronunciations, List of places named for their main products, List of political entities named after people, List of renamed places in the United States, List of geographic acronyms and initialisms. In 2002, the United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names acknowledged that while common, the practice of naming geographical places after living persons could be problematic. �1%�W��6`�s`y �,�Zs����i�b��c='�7"�HG�c��+m�g�$x�-=��������v�vq���]M��s|���_/�?0 �E ". ��:dI5/�*�[�h�ng,��+ 0 This data may be disseminated in a wide variety of formats, including hard-copy topographic maps as well as digital formats such as geographic information systems and Google Maps. %PDF-1.4 %���� distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level) base. Don't show this … q/B�+�px�NM�k��SXR0��6´1�s����}�#����k#6~ 0 =�� ����aO�a�'�Y�,���r�\�2��E���X!��3�]�H�;�\�?uu�OΪ�9��s�ɼ� Z�? Oh no! ���nS6?�I�����}�������. Hercus, Luise, Flavia Hodges, and Jane Simpson. [37] Also, in the context of Slavic nationalism, the name of Saint Petersburg was changed to the more Slavic sounding Petrograd from 1914 to 1924,[38] then to Leningrad following the death of Vladimir Lenin and back to Saint-Peterburg in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. Toponym is the general term for a proper name of any geographical feature,[6] and full scope of the term also includes proper names of all cosmographical features. In 1954, F. M. Powicke said of place-name study that it "uses, enriches and tests the discoveries of archaeology and history and the rules of the philologists. "[32], Toponyms not only illustrate ethnic settlement patterns, but they can also help identify discrete periods of immigration.[33][34]. 2007. h�b```f``�a`b`��a`@ �3G�j��LFy�Ο��4��A�Q���.\�Ӭ�4+s�E�@�1E0�[r��#�\&�0/���@�����0�� �3� ̋Y Toponymists are responsible for the active preservation of their region's culture through its toponymy. The map now contains brown squares outlining nearby US Topo Map quadrants. The process of folk etymology usually took over, whereby a false meaning was extracted from a name based on its structure or sounds. T/F Oronym focuses on topographic names. %%EOF The exact application of a toponym, its specific language, its pronunciation, and its origins and meaning are all important facts to be recorded during name surveys. Fragment from topographic map 1:200,000 from 1916 -Zlatibor is regional name and it touches Cigota oronym ... (oronym) but as the name of region (horonym). The Tribe Alice; how i healed myself from depression; god's not dead (2014) full movie; blue angels vs thunderbirds a map that uses contour lines to show the slope and elevation of the land. bottom of a mountain. There’s a lot more to topographic maps than first meets the eye. Some maps are so common that a child would recognize them, while others are used only by professionals in specialized fields. endstream endobj 36 0 obj <>stream [citation needed]. 39 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<458435911B1BEDF98BAE99CAA747ED2B><6258D0CC97BDB34899E12A54BD2CB607>]/Index[32 16]/Info 31 0 R/Length 56/Prev 75397/Root 33 0 R/Size 48/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Recent Examples on the Web The resulting works feature snaking networks of lines and abysses that call to mind topographical maps, such as those for the relatively unexplored surfaces of moons and planets, and the vast mysteries concealed along the ocean floors. endstream endobj 37 0 obj <>stream [1][2][3] In a more specific sense, the term toponymy refers to an inventory of toponyms, while the discipline researching such names is referred to as toponymics or toponomastics. T/F Migration often significantly affects the population pyramids of both origin and destination. �aA/���X_�r,k}�����U�H����`DR�3�NgFn�����D�qs[��~���ָF��~���H9I����)�^�tln�^��@�f����t�Z��$�g��r��A��^���ZaCK�8��n�s���&˟ޥ�F�0ѿ�ܨ��&j��S���Ӥ�+��]���T�,�dRV�;׃�(����g�n��5P���LH�ҭ�c��~X,�eV��CVt�:;�GYU��ZU ��[� �����J�G�:;�gK/ͺ��麼B�OԄ�c��ܧQ�#�"�A�ȍ�-�(��-�6FY��E�E✱}~ʳ��[�����$�׮���l�k7��Æĉ��˝�#��N��(�5�#=�:���.�y��� *��+\�t�}JU��Q�d�u��2� �'Q.�|H`���TE;[Cw�d��R�㡢� HN;5��2}N�4) O�O�\��4[A)+w�2���o�Ed�����̐K*�Vf�M:�䕕�e+�4�k��W��&� G�}M�#�(�ZVm4R�g�U‡��� �m�|��۞�%��zi [ޫ[�'���1樖w� Y���&�V�%Ԅh*�˧�hn�)����+&-{]��KytT/��UATQU;/aۨ�Ͷ�pV%g���B�v�dcKCs�O����?���lpz��a~}�:*z͈ Topographical definition is - topographic. 2009. a side view representation of an object (especially a human face) countour interval. 47 0 obj <>stream Therefore, the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names recommends that it be avoided and that national authorities should set their own guidelines as to the time required after a person's death for the use of a commemorative name. of Economic and Social Affairs, "Naming the past: The significance of commemorative street names", "Geographies of toponymic inscription: new directions in critical place-name studies", "Toponymy and Geopolitics: The Political Use — and Misuse — of Geographical Names", "Place Name Etymology: Common Elements in Danish Place Names", Planetary Maps: Visualization and Nomenclature, Development of a Local Toponym System at the Mars Desert Research Station, An Index to the Historical Place Names of Cornwall, “Indian Place Names—Aquidneck Indian Council”,, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [31], Place names provide the most useful geographical reference system in the world. 2009. ��p`\@ ��v��:C�C��(���/�J�j�qRKL�p���Ό� profile. For a discussion of the origins of place names themselves, see, "Toponymics" redirects here. H��V{. This nationalization of place names can also manifest itself in a postcolonial context. ", Hargitai, Henrik I., Hugh S. Greqorv, Jan Osburq, and Dennis Hands. [36] Similarly, the revisionist practice of m��j}��� name, geographical Name applied to a geographic or topographic feature or object; an alternative term for → place name or → toponym. topographic map. In a more restricted sense, the term toponymy refers to an inventory of toponyms, while the discipline researching such names is referred to as toponomastics. elevation. [40], Branch of onomastics, study of place names, This article is about the study of place names. In his Names on the Globe, George R. Stewart theorizes that Hellespont originally meant something like 'narrow Pontus' or 'entrance to Pontus', Pontus being an ancient name for the region around the Black Sea, and by extension, for the sea itself. Thus, for example, the toponym of Hellespont was explained by Greek poets as being named after Helle, daughter of Athamas, who drowned there as she crossed it with her brother Phrixus on a flying golden ram. Upon inspection, a user can determine the directions which creeks flow, the depth of a water course, how likely a gully is to contain water, and so on. A toponymist relies not only on maps and local histories, but interviews with local residents to determine names with established local usage. zqUt H��U�s�@~��GȄ�p���Xkڠ#��3&ӱ��T9H��x���0�ʹӇ��������b3X�;a\� �4����>�;���V�su�&X��6#���4lJ(�N%P�v�Լ���o�.q�K��b8�b��P�f������ԼM>�����D � [4] Toponymy is a branch of onomastics, the study of proper names of all kinds. h�bbd``b`� �@�� H0�@bi�jd`bdXR�����ϸ�@� �� United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, London, 10–31 May 1972, United Nations Dept. [35], In the same vein, writers Pinchevski and Torgovnik (2002) consider the naming of streets as a political act in which holders of the legitimate monopoly to name aspire to engrave their ideological views in the social space. "When 'what' is 'where': A linguistic analysis of landscape terms, place names and body part terms in Marquesan (Oceanic, French Polynesia). Według jakich kategorii dzieli się pochodzenie nazw? Cablitz, Gabriele H. 2008. Toponyms can be divided in two principal groups: Various types of geographical toponyms (geonyms) include, in alphabetical order: Various types of cosmographical toponyms (cosmonyms) include: It can be argued that the first toponymists were the storytellers and poets who explained the origin of specific place names as part of their tales; sometimes place-names served as the basis for their etiological legends.

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