In addition, unsecured intranet pages can provide attackers with internal documentation on the infrastructure and location of the target data. These key takeaways are noted: We now have some background on a vector that we could (potentially) use to develop our own POC WinRM tools. Program Organizational Units (POUs) are block structures used within PLC programming to create programs and projects. Information Security Blog Information Security Protecting Your Network From Lateral Movement. Product Overview I look forward to seeing others take this to the next level. Note: The WinRM service must be configured and running in order to accept remote connections. for access to internal systems, applications and data. It is also worth mentioning that other 3rd party WinRM capabilities exist outside of Windows including: At the time when I was investigating this topic, I noticed that there was not really much offered in the way of Windows tooling outside of PowerShell that leveraged WinRM for remote command execution/lateral movement. Adversaries may choose not to use malware or tools, in conjunction with the legitimate access those credentials provide, to make it harder to detect their presence or to control devices and send legitimate commands in an unintended way. Zetter, Kim. After initial authentication, the WinRM sessions are protected with AES encryption (, Although the tool offers an easy way to invoke remote commands, detection opportunities are relatively trivial. The adversary uses these techniques to access other hosts from a compromised system and get access to sensitive resources, such as mailboxes, shared folders, or credentials. This type of attack may ultimately give access to the domain controller and provide full control of a Windows-based infrastructure or business-related operator accounts. However, the rise of better detection optics and enhanced visibility in version 5+ have made PowerShell less appealing for post-exploitation. This gives the attacker access to the password hash for all domain users, including service accounts. I look forward to seeing others take this to the next level. Note: For more information about RCW, please refer to the, After we create a new .NET Framework (4) console application project, add the COM reference by right clicking the, After the Reference is added, Visual Studio kindly generates the, Before moving on, let’s take a quick peek into the, WSManWinRM.ps1 (PowerShell – similar to the Invoke-WSManAction cmdlet), Calling the Win32_Process class is not the only way to leverage WMI classes for remote command execution. This is the stage where attackers actively explore an organization’s network to find its vulnerable elements. Adversaries may copy files from one system to another to stage adversary tools or other files over the course of an operation. I believe there are more interesting research opportunities in this area (maybe a CSharp “PSSession” capability?). These additional positions help the attacker maintain persistence even if a security team detects them on a compromised machine. For instance, a very well-known WMI class, Win32_Process, can be used to spawn a (remote) process by leveraging the Create method. We use cookies to personalize content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic. In modern Windows systems, WinRM HTTP communication occurs over TCP port 5985 and HTTPS (TLS) communication occurs over TCP port 5986. Winrm.vbs is a Visual Basic Script that allows administrators “to configure WinRM and to get data or manage resources”  (Microsoft Docs). (n.d.). (2016, February 25). Lateral Movement consists of techniques that adversaries use to enter and control remote systems on a network. For example, in a corporate network, only IT staff should manage devices such as desktops and notebooks. Adversaries may leverage manufacturer or supplier set default credentials on control system devices. Access to valid accounts is often a requirement. To move from system to system they may attempt to gather valid user credentials by using, , network sniffer, brute forcing passwords or phishing to fool users into providing credentials. This is a vertical move, from outside to inside. A SIEM built on advanced data science, deep security expertise, and proven open source big data solutions. This attack methodology requires the additional compromise of user account credentials. Much of the core capabilities are driven by an underappreciated COM class that works very hard behind the scenes – WSMan.Automation. ( Log Out /  Retrieved May 30, 2018. However, it is not uncommon for attackers to find credentials on intranet pages, scripts, or other easily accessible files/systems. Examples are VPNs, Citrix, and other access mechanisms. The attacker can use these credentials to escalate their privileges and expand their access. It is notoriously hard to detect and block lateral movement because it involves the compromise of legitimate user accounts, privileged accounts, and devices. Lateral movement is also the stage where the attacker’s activity is most exposed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Network Lateral Movement, or simply "Lateral Movement", refers to the techniques that cyber attackers, or " threat actors ", use to progressively move through a network as they search for the key data and assets that are ultimately the target of their attack campaigns. Adversaries may be able to leverage valid credentials from one system to gain access to another system. Change ), Lateral movement techniques in the wonderful world of enterprise Windows are quite finite. For example, Be sure that you change the password [KRBTGT] on a regular schedule. After initial authentication, the WinRM sessions are protected with AES encryption (Microsoft Docs). Remote File Copy. These can be used in turn to compromise additional systems, for privilege escalation, or to steal more valuable credentials. Protecting Your Network From Lateral Movement. W32.Stuxnet Dossier (Version 1.4). Retrieved October 22, 2019. The adversary is trying to move through your ICS environment. With the rise of PowerShell well over a decade ago, most ethical hackers may agree that Windows Remote Management (WinRM) became a major of part of their “lateral movement toolkit” when the right (privileged) credential or identity was captured. ( Log Out /  It’s worth following a list of reputable applications and restricting those with known vulnerabilities. Additionally, we will showcase how we can leverage WSMAN.Automation, a very interesting COM object, to run remote commands over WinRM transport. As an alternative to DCOM and WMI for remote management, WinRM is used to establish sessions with remote computers over WSMan, which leverages HTTP/S as transport mechanism to deliver XML formatted messages. Operating system utilities attackers can use to carry out internal reconnaissance include. Retrieved March 8, 2019. Reaching their objective often involves pivoting through multiple systems and accounts to gain.

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