Both sexes and all life stages glow but only the adult female conspicuously so. The larvae emerge after 2 or 3 weeks, although they may take much longer in cooler climates, and immediately begin to search for food. The recognition experiment shows that the learner toads—although they previously already showed reluctance to luminescent prey—show stronger avoidance after havinghad experience with real glow-worms in the previous experiment. Even in fireflies, famous for their courtship flashes (Carlson and Copeland, 1985), there has been speculation for many years about the function of the light organs and distinctive glow ingbehavior of the larvae (Bushman, 1988; Christensen and Carlson, 1982; Dreisig, 1974; Lloyd, 1973; Sivinski, 1981; Tyler, 2002). Aho A-C, Donner K, Helenius S, Larsen LO, Reuter T. Aho A-C, Donner K, Hydén C, Larsen LO, Reuter T. Eisner T, Goetz MA, Hill DE, Smedley SR, Meinwald J. Eisner T, Wiemer DF, Haynes LW, Meinwald J. Littel RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. However, the toads that showed avoidance within each trial continued to sample a few larvae, even at the end of the experiment. Two toads escaped during this experiment, and one toad died. On its surface, black cardboard stripes (prey dummies) were attached at fixed distances and along the same height, in such a way that they moved along their longitudinal axis when the drum turned. Chalk grassland in the chilterns, a typical habitat of glow-worms. Glow-worm larvae typically glow from a paired light organ in the penultimate abdominal segment. Eggs are about 1mm in diameter, pale yellow and weakly luminescent. We summarize the most important findings here as they are needed for the interpretation of results of the following experiments. We hypothesized that the 13 of the 25 toads of the learning experiment that did not learn avoidance during the learning experiment (nonlearners) had poorer learning capabilities and needed more than a single larva each trial to learn avoidance. Latency times to attack glowing prey differed significantly between glowing and nonglowing prey (F1,74=19.7; p =.0001) between the experiments with or without extra learning (F1,74=10.1; p =.002), with a signifi cantinteraction effect between these two factors (F1,74=11.5; p =.001). The change in attack rate differed significantly between the two groups (F1,24 = 76; p =.0001). We used black dummies, as this color closely approximates the jet-black color of larval L.noctiluca, except that these have lateral yellowish dots at thecaudal side of each segment (De Cock and Matthysen, 2001). They were kept in terrariumssupplied with moist earth, dead leaves, pieces ofbark for shelter, and dug-in plastic containers with water that was refreshed every 2 days. Degrees of freedom of the Ftests were approximated by themethodofSatterth waite(Verbeke and Molenberghs, 1997). The procedure of the recognition experiment was exactly the same as described for the prelearning experiment, the only exception being a time lag of 3 to 10 days between trials. Attack latencies to nonglowing prey were short and remained similar (t = 0.01; df = 179; p = ns).

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