It is in that context that Marcel argued that it is no surprise that many human beings experience their lives as a gift. The author of several plays, he found drama a congenial form in which to express his existentialist viewpoint. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. It is no accident that, in an age often succumbing to this temptation, human existence is emptied of depth and falls prey to anxiety and absurdity. Gabriel Marcel is not typically read as a political theorist and social commentator. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Hence, too, there is no problem of breaking through to realism, for the Cartesian private ego is an abstraction: the concretely experienced self is "founded" by participation and can claim no precedence over other selves. BLONDEL, MAURICE (1861–1949), French Roman Catholic philosopher. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. He was largely an underivative thinker; not only was the influence of the progenitor of existentialism, Kierkegaard, next to nil, but the direction of Marcel's thought was quite fully determined prior to that of other 20th-century existentialists such as heidegger, jaspers, and sartre. The meaning of being, for instance, cannot be revealed objectively. But he remained a strikingly independent thinker whose ideas were formed before his conversion—and as such could be regarded as important indicators of certain Godly aspects of the human experience. These intensely demanding encounters with people were a living source of Marcel's highly concrete and personalistic philosophy, and of his lifelong suspicion of what he called the "spirit of abstraction.". c. pax, An Existential Approach to God: A Study of Gabriel Marcel (The Hague 1972). Philosophy, History of Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marcel-gabriel. For it is in these experiences that the "thou" is delivered to the perceiver; and the "I-thou" relation is a pivotal form of participation. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. "Marcel, Gabriel The Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas-Austin, maintains seven boxes of archival documentation related to Marcel. Marcel's main philosophical works are Metaphysical Journal, The Mystery of Being (2 v.), Being and Having, Homo Viator, and the essay "On the Ontological Mystery." Starting in his youth he also displayed a keen ability to play music—an avocation which would also influence his thinking. □. New Catholic Encyclopedia. But experiences as a Red Cross worker in World War I, he wrote, shattered his idealism and turned him toward an existentialist approach. 倫理学 主な概念 "The Other" (autrui), concrete philosophy (philosophie concrète) His wife died in 1947. Marcel wrote that unpleasant aspects of his childhood, including the death of his mother when he was four, led him to take up idealistic philosophy in an attempt to transcend his situation. His subsequent conversion to Catholicism gave a new dimension to certain aspects of his philosophy. His brand of existentialism was said to be largely unknown in the English-speaking world, where it was mistakenly associated with that of Jean-Paul Sartre. d. appelbaum, Contact and Attention: The Anatomy of Gabriel Marcel's Metaphysical Method ([Pittsburgh, Pa.] 1986, c1987). The following are scholarly articles on Gabriel Marcel: Thomas C. Anderson, "The Nature of the Human Self According to Gabriel Marcel" Philosophy Today (Winter 1985); Joseph Godfrey, "Appraising Marcel on Hope" Philosophy Today (Fall 1987); Preston Browning, "Walker Percy and Gabriel Marcel: The Dialectical Self in The Moviegoer" Renascence (Summer 1988); Thomas Michaud, "Secondary Reflection and Marcelian Anthropology" Philosophy Today (Fall 1990); and Danne W. Polk, "Gabriel Marcel's Kinship to Ecophilosophy" Environmental Ethics (Summer 1984). Thus the very virtues and successes of the present rationalist-technical civilization constitute a threat to the sense of mystery. During the war Marcel wrote his thorough study of the American philosopher Josiah Royce, Royce's Metaphysics (1956), and taught at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris. To "prove" the existence of God is simply to raise to speculative recognition a truth already present to participation. k. t. gallagher, The Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel (New York 1962). Human thought tends to withdraw from the immediacy of participation, to treat the presence there met as an object confronting an autonomous subject, or, as Marcel says, to transform being into having. During World War I Marcel was a Red Cross official whose job was obtaining news of wounded and missing soldiers and contacting their relatives. The essence of religious belief involves an experiential aspect, so the intellectual discussion is necessarily limited. An object, in Marcel's sense, is something that one can regard as external to himself. Among his chief philosophical works are The Mystery of Being (1951); the Gifford Lectures for 1949-1950 at the University of Aberdeen; Homo Viator (1951); Man Against Mass Society (1951); Being and Having (1957); The Existential Background of Human Dignity (1963); and the William James Lectures at Harvard for 1961-1962. . Maritain was one of the great…, Continental philosophy is a term that arose after the Second World War in English-speaking countries as a name for philosophical approaches that take…, Ancient eclecticism, according to the second century c.e. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. . ." Blondel was born at Dijon and educated at the École Normale Supérie…, The American philosopher Josiah Royce (1855-1916) was the last and the greatest spokesperson for systematic philosophical idealism in the United Stat…, Gabor, Jolie (1894–1997), Magda (1914–1997), Zsa Zsa (1917– ), and Eva (1919–1995), Gabriel, Theodore (Theodore P.C. Encyclopedia.com. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. God is the Absolute "Thou" who lurks in the truncated experience of presence felt in human communion. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He also rejected the systematic approach of academic philosophy and developed what he called "concrete philosophy," contending that a philosopher must do his work as a participant in life rather than as an observer. That is why he concentrates on novel philosophical themes such as love, hope, and fidelity. Marcel received his degree in philosophy from the Sorbonne in 1910 and married professor Jacqueline Boegner in 1919. The history of philosophy is a special branch of the general history of culture whose object is the critical study of the form…, Maritain, Jacques Marcel speaks of a "blinded intuition" of the plenitude of being, but this intuition is not an object of vision. Together they adopted a son, Jean. [1977]). ." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Marcel’s experiential approach to religious belief was rooted in the phenomenological method. Works. Finally, the truth of transcendence is not something that is imposed upon a person "automatically." He did some teaching, but for most of his life devoted himself to free-lance intellectual work as essayist, critic, editor, and lecturer. Encyclopedia.com. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Although he had little visual memory of his mother, Marcel described her continued "spiritual presence" during his youth as an important influence on his thoughts—giving rise to an awareness of the "hidden polarity between the seen and the unseen." Gabriel Marcel, in full Gabriel-Honoré Marcel, (born December 7, 1889, Paris, France—died October 8, 1973, Paris), French philosopher, dramatist, and critic who was associated with the phenomenological and existentialist movements in 20th-century European philosophy and whose work and style are often characterized as theistic or Christian existentialism (a term Marcel disliked, … "Marcel, Gabriel The journal reflects a movement away from traditional academic philosophy and was influenced by Sören Kirkegaard, in whom Marcel was deeply interested. He believed that once a problem is solved it is dismissed from consciousness, whereas a mystery always remains alive and interesting. Since, in the area of mystery, the presence affirmed cannot be externalized vis-à-vis the singular self, the affirmation of such a presence involves personal singularity—and hence personal freedom. Further information on Marcel is in Vincent Miceli, Ascent to Being: Gabriel Marcel's Philosophy of Communion (Desclee, 1965); Seymour Cain, Gabriel Marcel (Hillary House, 1963); Sam Keen, Gabriel Marcel (John Knox Press, 1967); Kenneth T. Gallagher, The Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel (Fordham University Press, 1962); Clyde Pax, An Existential Approach to God: A Study of Gabriel Marcel (Martinus Nijhoff, 1972); François Lapointe, Gabriel Marcel and His Critics (Garland Pub., 1977); Hilda Lazaron, Gabriel Marcel the Dramatist (Smythe, 1978); Joe McCown, Availability: Gabriel Marcel and the Phenomenology of Human Openness (Scholars Press for the American Academy of Religion, 1978); Neil Gillman, Gabriel Marcel on Religious Knowledge (University Press of America, 1980); Pietro Prini, Gabriel Marcel (Economica, 1984); Paul Arthur Schlipp and Lewis Edwin Hahn, eds., The Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel (essays) (Open Court Publishing Co., 1984); A.J.L. But some data do not permit objectification of this type. j. c. mccown, Availability: Gabriel Marcel and the Phenomenology of Human Openness (Missoula, Mont. In particular, he attempts to recover the special dimension of being revealed in human communion. Marcel lived and taught for a time in Switzerland, where he began writing his Metaphysical Journal (1927). In awakening to the ontological plenitude of human communion, one awakens to the aura of the eternal and inexhaustible that pervades communion. The question of being is thus a mystery and not a problem. 16 Oct. 2020 . He was raised primarily by his mother’s sister, whom his father married two year… "Gabriel Marcel Gabriel Honoré Marcel[a] (1889–1973) was a French philosopher, playwright, music critic and leading Christian existentialist. Marcel became a leader in French Catholic intellectual circles, and his Paris home was the locale for stimulating discussion among leading European intellectuals of all persuasions. It is among Marcel's deepest convictions that the transcendent dimension of human existence cannot be revealed to an impersonal thought; rather it is the intelligible epiphany of an authentic human existence. The intuition of transcendence must be read back out of the works it makes possible: chiefly this reading-back is accomplished in the "I-thou" experiences. Participation and Presence. His mother died when he was 4, and he was raised by an aunt whom his father married. It is symptomatic of the radically integral character of his thought that he ranked music as one of the most important influences on his philosophy. Along with Martin Buber, Marcel is one of the founders of 20th-century dialogue-oriented I-Thou philosophy. In 1933 he became involved in Moral Re-Armament and in 1958 edited a book of testimonies, Fresh Hope for the World, in which he and others expressed support for the movement. . He studied at the Sorbonne but did not complete his doctorate, and as a philosopher was unusual in not pursuing an academic career. These include the phenomenon of the broken world, the hegemony of science and technology, and the stultifying of the life of the spirit in contemporary life and culture, all amid the necessity of responding to the human call for transcendence.

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