Endometriosis Association International Headquarters. [127] Cohort studies indicate that surgery is effective in decreasing pain. However, there is no natural outlet for the blood discarded from these implants. Pain can also start a week before a menstrual period, during and even a week after a menstrual period, or it can be constant. In cases that don't respond to these treatments, a woman and her doctor may consider surgery to remove her reproductive organs. [2] The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. [139], The early treatment of endometriosis was surgical and included oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries) and hysterectomy (removal of the uterus). Women whose periods last longer than a week with an interval of less than 27 days between them seem to be more prone to the condition. However, smaller endometriosis implants cannot be visualized with ultrasound technique. [55][56] Further theoretical additions are needed to compliment the retrograde menstruation theory to explain why cases of endometriosis show up in the brain[57] and lungs. Ectopic endometrial cells respond to the same hormonal stimuli as does the uterine endometrium. [150] Endometriosis is a chronic disease that has direct and indirect costs which include loss of work days, direct costs of treatment, symptom management, and treatment of other associated conditions such as depression or chronic pain. [10] Risk factors include having a family history of the condition. Endometriosis affects an estimated 1 in 10 women. In the U.S. this condition is estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of actively menstruating women between the ages of 25 and 44. Each is further described below. Occasionally, this tissue grows in such distant parts of the body as the lungs, arms, and kidneys. [31] Endometriosis-associated infertility can be related to scar formation and anatomical distortions due to the endometriosis. [citation needed] Pulmonary endometriosis can be associated with a thoracic endometriosis syndrome that can include catamenial (occurs during menstruation) pneumothorax seen in 73% of women with the syndrome, catamenial hemothorax in 14%, catamenial hemoptysis in 7%, and pulmonary nodules in 6%. [1] Endometriosis is commonly misdiagnosed, and women are often incorrectly told their symptoms are trivial or normal. [10][29], Stress may be a cause or a consequence of endometriosis. (16 July 2012). Painful sexual intercourse. [130] Disadvantages are that there are no large or long-term studies of its use for treating pain or infertility related to endometriosis. [150] One factor which seems to be associated with especially high costs is the delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Endometriosis occurring within an abdominal incision scar following pelvic surgery. [20], Also, endometriotic lesions can develop their own nerve supply, thereby creating a direct and two-way interaction between lesions and the central nervous system, potentially producing a variety of individual differences in pain that can, in some cases, become independent of the disease itself. An annual pelvic examination and Papanicolaou test are recommended. Progestins. However, this should only be done in combination with removal of the endometriosis by excision. Ectopic endometrioses resulting from an ectopic location can cause catamenial hemorrhage or catamenial air leaks. Like the uterine lining, this tissue builds up and sheds in response to monthly hormonal cycles. [28] Rarely, endometriosis can cause endometrium-like tissue to be found in other parts of the body. Endometriosis is the growth of tissue, similar to the kind that lines a woman’s uterus, elsewhere in her body. As to the surgical procedure, ablation (or fulguration) of endometriosis (burning and vaporizing the lesions with an electric device) has shown a high rate of short-term recurrence after the procedure.

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