Mr. Kim’s specific areas of technical expertise include LNG liquefaction technology, NGL processing and natural gas treatment. Experimental solubility data for benzene in methane from Neumann, According to the solubility data, approximately 8 ppmv of benzene is theoretically soluble in liquid methane at the typical liquefaction temperature of –250°F. (HDA) of toluene and toluene disproportionation (TDP). By increasing the benzene concentration of the feed gas stream, benzene contents in sweet gas and vent gas streams display an increase. ppmv–1, respectively (R2 = 0.99). 5. SuckHee Kim is a principal process engineer with more than 22 years of engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) and front-end engineering design (FEED) experience in the oil and gas industry. Methods include solvent extraction, 1) is modeled using a commercial process simulator. Mercury can be easily removed by conventional methods, such as a non-regenerable metal oxide guard bed. The maximum allowable benzene content in a given feed gas rate is set by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benzene emissions limits. In addition, the vent gas incineration is a thermal oxidation process in which the BTEX components are combusted at a temperature of 1,500°F. Here, a typical amine sweetening unit for acid gas removal, featuring a typical lean feed gas composition, is modeled using commercial amine sweetening software to calculate annual benzene emissions rates. Benzene consumption and growth will vary by region, based on the development of downstream derivative capacity. 2. Copyright © 2020 LexisNexis Risk Solutions Group, Contact Client Success on clientsuccess@icis.com. Get ahead of Interbank Offered Rate (IBOR) benchmark reform, California Do Not Sell My Personal Information, Identify trends and driving forces influencing chemical markets, Understand the impact of competing materials, Identify and evaluate potential customers and competitors, Track changing prices and trade movements, Analyze the impact of feedstocks, regulations, and other factors on chemical profitability. coke has been overtaken by a number of processes. The main Fig. Fig. We use cookies to improve the performance of our site, to analyse the traffic to our site, and to personalise your experience of the site. In other words, the vent gas incineration process can be operating cost-prohibitive from a fuel-usage standpoint.2. This situation triggered a local benzene supply glut that has spread globally via increasing trade volumes. Executive Viewpoint: Excelerate Energy sees huge new-market potential for FSRUs, Executive Viewpoint: Midstream seeks cost-effective, “fit-for-purpose” solutions amid downturn, Regional Focus: The role of small-scale LNG in Russia’s energy agenda, Benzene is a human carcinogen that promotes leukemia, Toluene exposure can lead to reproductive or developmental effects, Ethylbenzene affects the blood, kidneys and liver. 2Morrow, D. and K. Lunsford, “Removal and disposal of BTEX components from amine plant acid gas streams,” Proceedings from the 76th annual GPA convention, 1997. disproportionation of toluene where benzene is coproduced in ppmv . a very small amount of benzene is absorbed in the MDEA solution due to low partial pressure of benzene in the feed gas stream. Dr. Hwang works for SK E&C as a senior process engineer. Calculated yearly benzene emissions at 320 MMscfd. 6 reports estimated LNG plant capacity as a function of the benzene concentration of the feed gas stream. The reasons1 for the restrictions are as follows: Therefore, most gas operations incinerate BTEX, which are then absorbed in the amine unit and eventually released to the atmosphere to resolve the disposal issue of BTEX components in the vent gas stream. Estimated LNG plant capacities at various benzene and piperazine loadings. The LNG plant capacity decreases as benzene content in the feed gas stream increases to meet the EPA emissions limit. Fig. All Rights Reserved. The plant is assumed to operate for 330 days, the discount rate is taken to be 10%, the 10 year MACRS depreciation scheme is used, and the plant lifetime is assumed to be 30 years. Futures: at least a 10 minute delay. Production of ethyl benzene (EB) is vital due to the importance of products that can be derived from it. Since most of the vent gas stream is water-saturated CO2, a considerable amount of fuel gas is required for this operation. molecular sieves and crystallisation. In this work, the authors provide the example of the removal of vent gas incineration from amine regeneration in the feed gas treatment portion of an LNG plant, and explain how this modification would affect LNG plant capacity. The rich amine solution is regenerated in a stripper column to produce an acid gas stream concentrated with CO2, and is eventually vented to atmosphere without incineration. Chinese benzene consumption has increased at an average rate of nearly 9% per year since 2013. The slopes and intercept of the linear regression were 418.9 MMscfd . Xylene exposure can affect the central nervous system, leading to respiratory and cardiovascular problems. Copyright © 2019. Sustainability drives the entire IHS Markit enterprise. Ultimately, understanding the effects of benzene emissions rates on LNG plant capacity provides a basis for operators and designers to interpret and manipulate a broad range of feed gas compositions in LNG plant design. Requirements of feed gas treatment. reports the calculated annual benzene emissions rate in tpy, in terms of benzene concentration of the feed gas stream, for the case study of 320 MMscfd of feed gas flow. 4. 3Bullin, J. and W. Brown, “Hydrocarbons and BTEX pickup and control from amine systems,” Proceedings from the 83rd annual GPA convention, 2004. Piperazine is a cyclic diamine that reacts with CO2 approximately 10 times faster than MDEA. By increasing the benzene concentration of the feed gas stream, benzene contents in sweet gas and vent gas streams display an increase. 2: 2011. HDA plants are usually used to maintain the balance of benzene supply when all other sources of benzene can not meet demand. Amine’s reactivity with CO2 and benzene’s solubility in amine solution could factor into the benzene emissions from an AGRU without a vent gas incinerator. . 3 reports the calculated annual benzene emissions rate in tpy, in terms of benzene concentration of the feed gas stream, for the case study of 320 MMscfd of feed gas flow. However, as shown in Fig. 7 shows the benzene content in the vent gas stream as a function of piperazine concentration.

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